Macular edema

Macular edema cause

Macular edema is a complication of certain diseases of the retina such as retinal vascular occlusions. Macular edema can develop with diabetic retinopathy or, for example following cataract removal (Irvine-Gass syndrome), postoperative macular edema.

Modern cataract surgery procedure, now practiced nearly worldwide, involves phacoemulsification of the cataracted lens and implantation of the artificial lens.

This method of cataract surgery, introduced at the end of the 80s, significantly improved the previously common causes of inflammation, until they were almost forgotten.

One cause of inflammation is cystoid macular edema (PCME, Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema).

The pathogenesis of cystoid macular edema, even if not completely known, seems to be related to alteration in the blood-retinal barrier as a consequence of the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Postoperative inflammation starts acutely and is reduced spontaneously following the body’s reaction.

Macular edema is found mostly as diabetic macular edema, occurring in diabetic patients after surgery 6 times more than in non-diabetic patients.

The European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) referred ophthalmologists’ attention to the issue of postoperative macular edema in recent years via the PREMED study, which was discussed in Lisbon in 2017 and in Vienna in 2018.

Be sure to ask your ophthalmologist for advice.