WHAT IS IT AND HOW IS IT TREATED
MACULAR EDEMA is a complication of certain diseases of the retina such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, or in some cases can be the secondary undesirable effect of a surgery such as cataract removal (Irvine-Gass syndrome).
Modern cataract surgery, now practised almost worldwide, is phacoemulsification of the cataracted lens and implantation of the artificial lens.
This procedure, introduced at the end of the 80s, significantly improved the previously common causes of inflammation, until they were almost forgotten.
One cause of inflammation is Cystoid Macular Oedema (PCME, Pseudophakic Cystoid Macular edema).
The pathogenesis of cystoid macular edema, even if not completely known, seems to be related to alteration in the blood-retinal barrier as a consequence of the release of inflammation mediators.
Post surgical inflammation starts acutely and is reduced spontaneously following the body’s reaction.
Macular edema is found especially in diabetic people, where it occurs following surgery 6 times more than in non-diabetic patients.
The European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) referred ophthalmologists’ attention to this important problem in recent years via the PREMED study, which was discussed in Lisbon in 2017 and in Vienna in 2018.